It is currently Fri Jun 05, 2020 11:20 am

All times are UTC - 6 hours


Forum rules


The purpose of this forum is to provide a place for people who are interested in the Irish language and various Celtic languages to discuss them, to practice them, and to share information about them, particularly (but not exclusively) in the context of traditional music and culture.

This is not a "translation forum," per se, though translation requests may occasionally be honored at the discretion of the moderators. If you're seeking a one-time translation for something like a tattoo, engraving, wedding vow, or other such purpose, we strongly recommend that you visit our friends at ILF: http://irishlearner.awyr.com



Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 3 posts ] 
Author Message
 
 Post subject: Irish Verb Tutorial
PostPosted: Thu Apr 01, 2010 10:03 am 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Tue May 28, 2002 6:00 pm
Posts: 6051
Location: Somewhere in the Western Hemisphere
I recently put together a handout on conjugating regular verbs in Irish for an adult beginners' class I'm teaching. I thought that folks here might find it useful as well:

REGULAR VERBS IN IRISH

ROOT FORM

Unlike verbs in most languages, Irish verbs don’t have an infinitive form (“to eat,” “to walk,” etc.). Instead, the singular imperative (“command”) form of the verb is its “root form”…that is, the basic form of the verb you will find when you look it up in the dictionary. For example:

Can (sing)

Rith (run)

Ól (drink)

Fan (wait)

Éirigh
(rise/get up)

Ceannaigh (buy)

Codail (sleep)

Oscail (open)

CONJUGATIONS

Irish has two “classes” or “conjugations” of verbs. These “conjugations” differ slighting in the endings they take in the present and future tense.

FIRST CONJUGATION

First conjugation verbs are the simplest. Most first conjugation verbs have one-syllable roots (in the example above, "can," "rith," "ól" and "fan" are all first conjugation). They form their present tense by adding –ann or –eann to the root, followed by the subject or subject pronoun:

Canann sé amhrán: He sings/is singing a song

Ritheann an madadh: The dog runs/is running

Ólann an fear tae: The man drinks/is drinking tea

They form their future tense by adding the ending –fidh or –faidh to the root:

Canfaidh mé an amhrán: I will sing the song

Rithfidh sí amach: She will run outside

Ólfaidh sibh bhur gcuid bainne ar dtús: You (pl.) will drink your milk first


SECOND CONJUGATION

Second conjugation verbs usually have two-syllable roots. Frequently, these end in –igh or –aigh, though occasionally they end in l, n, m or r (in the example above, "éirigh," "ceannaigh," "codail" and "oscail" are second conjugation). Second conjugation verbs are more variable than first conjugation verbs, but in general:

Second conjugation verbs that end in –igh or –aigh form their present tense by dropping the “igh” and adding “-íonn”:

Éiríonn sé ag a seacht gach maidin: He gets up at seven every morning.

Ceannaíonn siad bia ag an ollmhargadh: They buy food at the supermarket.

Second conjugation verbs that end in a consonant typically “syncopate”…that is, they drop the unstressed vowel sound in front of the final consonant and add the ending “-aíonn”:

Codlaíonn sé ansin
: He sleeps there (root form of the verb is “codail”)

Osclaíonn an cailín an dóras: The girl opens the door (root form of the verb is “oscail”)

Second conjugation verbs form the future tense by dropping “-igh” (or syncopating, in the case of verbs that end in a consonant) and adding “-eóidh” or “-óidh”:

Éireóidh mé ag a seacht amárach
: I will get up at seven tomorrow

Ceannóidh sé nuachtán duit sa chathair: He will buy you a newspaper in the city.

Codlóidh tú ansin san oíche: You will sleep there tonight.

Osclóidh sí an dóras duit: She will open the door for you.

A common exception to the second conjugation rule is the verb "foghlaim" (learn). Unlike most second conjugation verbs that end in a consonant sound, "foghlaim" doesn't syncopate. Instead, it simply adds the second conjugation endings to its root form:

Foghlaimíonn siad go maith: They are learning well

Foghlaimeóidh mé briathra Gaeilge lá éigin!: I will learn Irish verbs someday!

PAST TENSE

Regardless of conjugation, regular verbs form their past tense in one of four ways:

1) If the root begins with a lenitable consonant (i.e., any consonant other than l,n,or r), it is lenited -- that is, an "h" is inserted after the initial consonant, or, in the old writing, a dot is placed over the consonant to indicate that it is "softened":

Chan an bhean an t-amhrán is fearr liom: The woman sang my favorite song

Cheannaigh siad carr i nGaillimh: They bought a car in Galway

2) If the root begins with an unlenitable consonant, it is used as-is:

Rith an cat istigh sa teach: The cat ran into the house

3) If the root begins with a vowel, it is preceded by d’:

D’ól an fear seo an bheoir uilig: That man drank all the beer.

D’éirigh an bhean as a cathaoir: The woman arose from her chair

4) if the root begins with “f,” it takes both the lenition and the d’ prefix (“f” is lenited because it is a lenitable consonant, then the “d’” become necessary because “fh” is silent, resulting in a word starting with a vowel sound):

D’fhan sí ag an stáisiún: She waited at the station.

D'fhoghlaim mé mo chuid Gaeilge i nDún na nGall: I learned my Irish in Donegal.

SPECIAL FIRST-PERSON ENDINGS FOR PRESENT TENSE VERBS

In most cases, the regular present tense form of the verb is used in front of a pronoun:

Canann sé: He sings/is singing

Éiríonn sí: She arises/is arising

The singular first person (and, in Munster, the plural first person) is an exception.

1) If the present tense ends with “-ann,” the “nn” is dropped and the ending “-im” is added:

Canaim: I sing/am singing

Ólaim: I drink/am drinking

2) if the present tense ends with “-eann,” the entire suffix drops off and is replaced by
“-im”:

Rithim: I run/am running

3) If the present tense ends with “-íonn,” the “-onn” drops off, and “-m” is added:

Éirím: I arise/am arising

Ceannaím: I buy/am buying.

MAKING A VERB NEGATIVE:

If the verb is in the present or future tense:

Put “ní” in front of it, and lenite the consonant if possible. Vowels and unlenitable consonants remain unchanged:

Ní chanann muid le chéile
: We don’t sing together

Ní éirím ag a seacht sa maidin
: I don’t get up at seven in the morning

Ní rithfidh an madadh: The dog will not run.

If the verb is in the past tense, put “níor” in front of it, and lenite the consonant if possible. Vowels and unlenitable consonants remain unchanged, but the “d’” prefix is removed from verbs beginning with a vowel or fh:

Níor chan mé an amhrán seo: I didn’t sing that song

Níor rith an cat isteach: The cat didn’t run inside

Níor éirigh sé inné
: He didn’t get up yesterday.

Níor fhan muid ag an stáisiún: We didn’t wait at the station.

EXERCISE

Using the English section of an Irish-English/English-Irish dictionary, look up the following verbs, determine if they are first or second conjugation, then conjugate them following the rules above:

Grow Reap Break

Walk Start/begin Cut

Stand Leave/go away Clean

Next week we will look at how to ask and answer questions using the regular verbs, and we will also meet a couple of the irregular verbs (there are only 11, so don't panic!).

_________________
...agus déanfaidh mé do mholadh ar an gcruit a Dhia, a Dhia liom!


Top
 Profile  
Reply with quote  
 
 Post subject: Re: Irish Verb Tutorial
PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 6:28 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Fri Feb 16, 2007 7:43 pm
Posts: 2454
Location: Land-of-Sky
Thanks for that!! That is excellent!!

_________________
"In prayer, it is better to have a heart without words, than words without a heart." John Bunyan


Top
 Profile  
Reply with quote  
 
 Post subject: Re: Irish Verb Tutorial
PostPosted: Wed Aug 11, 2010 8:34 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Tue May 28, 2002 6:00 pm
Posts: 6051
Location: Somewhere in the Western Hemisphere
The Whistle Collector wrote:
Thanks for that!! That is excellent!!


You're welcome. It's something I worked up for my level 2 students.

Redwolf

_________________
...agus déanfaidh mé do mholadh ar an gcruit a Dhia, a Dhia liom!


Top
 Profile  
Reply with quote  
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 3 posts ] 

All times are UTC - 6 hours


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to:  
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group
[ Time : 0.101s | 11 Queries | GZIP : On ]
(dh)